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    鐵路列檢作業的變遷

    時間:2019-03-28 11:14:05 來源:人民鐵道網-人民鐵道報 作者:王振鵬 張東華
      隨著科技的快速發展,鐵路各工種發生了翻天覆地的變化。這里,我們關注一下改革開放以來,鐵路列檢作業的變遷,追隨新中國鐵路的前進步伐,感受鐵路發展的成就。
      
      改革開放初期,全國運行的貨車車型由新中國成立初期的數十種“萬國造”車型逐漸形成了以滑動軸承為主的50噸載重的數十種車型,維修作業量大、車輛性能不高、車輛故障率高、維修難度大……列檢通常是鐵路行業里又苦又累的工種。
      
      那時的檢車員工作條件非常艱苦,工作服常常穿兩個月就成了破爛,工作的錘子是自己找鋼管焊的,安裝蓄電池的檢車燈,兩個卡子也是經常損壞,因此每個人都成了縫補衣服、修理工具的高手。通信基本靠吼、信號基本靠手,是當時檢車員工作的生動寫照。
      
      編組場中心的一排電線桿,每個上面都裝有一個喇叭。發布檢修任務時,常常要通過喇叭通知。人與人之間的溝通就更原始了,距離近一點,只能扯開嗓子喊,稍遠一些的,通常是用類似海員的旗語、燈光信號來完成。手搖脫軌器、人工操作試驗臺和一些原始的小工具使得檢修作業艱難而低效。就是在這樣的艱苦歲月中,一代又一代的貨車檢車員見證著鐵路貨運量的翻倍增長。
      
      進入上世紀90年代,以60噸載重滾動軸承為主流的60車型出現,逐漸淘汰了滑動軸承的50噸載重車型。貨車車型更加精簡,各種雜型車輛逐漸被淘汰,列檢的工作量減少,但是仍有很多車型使用滑動軸承。雖然列車編組輛數不多,但是滑動軸承的維護工作量仍然很大,列車配件故障率居高不下。
      
      進入21世紀,鐵路迎來了飛速發展,列檢工作也發生了翻天覆地的變化,隨著大量科技裝備的應用以及貨車車型的更新換代,貨車列檢的作業模式也在不斷改進。隨著貨車速度的提升,各種新型提速貨車逐漸取代舊型貨車,高質量的新車型極大地減少了列檢作業的工作量,列檢的保證區段被逐漸拉長,列檢工作朝著更加高效、智能的方向發展,科技的融入極大地影響著列檢傳統作業模式。隨著貨車安全防范系統的成熟應用,科技給列檢安上了“千里眼”和“順風耳”,各種高科技的終端設備可以對貨車運行的圖片、軸溫、裝載、車輪和軸承的運行狀態等信息進行實時采集,利用網絡將各種數據傳輸給室內檢車員,然后通過綜合大數據中心的數據進行分析比對。
      
      不久以后,貨車的狀態修可以通過軌邊檢測設備將故障信息自動預報給列檢人員,減少了頻繁的技術檢查作業,同時還可以依靠科學智能的決策診斷系統,綜合車輛運行時間、運行里程、檢測設備綜合預報信息、零部件壽命管理等輸入條件,針對車輛具體狀態進行精準修理。檢車員更加感受到科技帶來的便捷和高效,列檢作業逐漸由野外作業工種向室內作業工種過渡。
      
      艱苦的奮斗和科技的創新造就了鐵路的飛速發展。走進新時代,列檢人繼續堅持科學、高效的工作思路,不忘初心、繼續前行,為鐵路的安全暢通作出貢獻。
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    2、凡本網注明 “來源:XXX(非人民鐵道網)” 的作品,均轉載自其它媒體,轉載目的在于傳遞更多信息,并不代表本網贊同其觀點和對其真實性負責。
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    標簽:
    編輯: 魯溟濤

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