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    我眼中的列檢所維修貨車之變

    時間:2019-04-11 15:48:04 來源:人民鐵道網-人民鐵道報 作者:晉太良

    上世紀80年代,太原北車輛段檢車員給貨車滑動軸箱加注潤滑油。

    上世紀80年代,太原北車輛段檢車員列隊進行貨車風動制動性能試驗。
     
      上世紀80年代初,我在太原北車輛段太北二場列檢所擔任貨車檢車員,時任主任寧志中是老列檢出身。如今,年近八旬、身體硬朗的老主任退而不休,每年都受邀到段里給新來的大學畢業生講述段史,我在旁聽中知曉了更多新中國成立以來列檢所的發展變化,深感70年來貨車運用維修工作發生了質的飛躍。
     
      新中國成立前,鐵路貨車運用維修工作非常薄弱,事故頻發。由于日常維修保養差,加上戰爭的破壞,山西境內的貨車大多破爛不堪,不能運用。新中國成立初期,太原北車輛段成立了搶修隊,突擊修整貨車。1949年至1957年,鐵路貨車既有從國外購進的舊型貨車,也有仿制國外的貨車,貨車種類達500多種,有“萬國博覽會”之稱。貨車結構復雜,均是通用貨車,平均載重40噸以下。這段時期,檢修工裝簡陋,對需要摘車換輪的貨車用風鎬起車,用木馬支承,用千斤頂分解轉向架后推出輪對。之后,經改革人拉搗鏈吊起臺車架子,稍微改善了些勞動條件,但所有大小螺絲全部靠人工扳手拆卸。
     
      上世紀60年代至80年代,我國鐵路貨車技術自主化,制造的貨車平均載重噸數由30噸向50噸再向60噸升級。但不可否認的是,由于新造貨車數量有限,貨車中仍有不少載重量四五十噸的雜型木幫車。每有貨車被機車牽引著駛入列檢作業場時,總是發出咣當咣當的聲音,皆因車型繁雜、結構緊固性差,僅轉向架就有數十種,令人眼花繚亂。這些雜型、破舊貨車常年疲勞運行,車體老化下沉,中央梁裂紋折損,大小故障隱患不少,導致行車事故偶有發生。為防止發生事故,檢車員每個月至少換修幾十種配件,緊固轉向架立柱等部位的大小螺栓不計其數,工作量大得驚人。
     
      我記得剛入職時,列檢所工作條件極為簡陋,待檢室、更衣室、辦公室等是低矮的平房,木制的更衣柜不帶門,更沒有鎖。上班時,人人自帶飯食,放到鍋爐房蒸飯箱內蒸熟或加熱,解決午餐、晚餐。檢車員上線路作業時,攜帶檢車錘、扳手、開銷器,夜班還要帶上檢車燈,緊固車鉤鉤托板螺栓、調整制動行程、更換閘瓦和制動梁等都是家常便飯。
     
      那時,我所在的丙班分兩個作業組,每個組每一個班檢查維修列車10余列、合計400多輛貨車,規定作業時間為一列車到達檢修35分鐘、始發檢修25分鐘。每遇到列車密集到發,工友們忙得連進屋喝口水的時間都沒有,一直奔波在作業場線路上,還要兼顧聽著線路上高音大喇叭里傳來的計劃值班員作業安排,不停地轉道作業。到了夜晚,他們借助微弱的站場燈光和檢車燈的光亮,對車輛走行部、制動部、鉤緩部等重要部位用心檢查,側耳細聽檢車錘敲擊車輪等必敲配件的聲音,如有異音,必須檢查確認。
     
      那時,每到冬季,制動梁折裂、制動機緩解不良、車鉤托板螺栓松動等故障經常發生。最讓人頭疼的是在寒冷的冬季上夜班,清洗制動缸、擰開滑動軸箱蓋更換高熱或燃軸的軸瓦……干這些活兒,檢車員常常是衣內一身汗、身外掛著霜。那個年代的檢車員,工作繁重,但沒有人叫苦喊累,大家時刻繃緊安全弦,兢兢業業,盡職盡責。
     
      進入上世紀90年代,鐵路實施大提速,貨車新車型大量運用,尤其是滾動軸承普及后,檢車員工作量明顯減少,鐵路貨車技術的發展有目共睹。
     
      新中國成立以來的70年間,鐵路運輸裝備日新月異。貨車車型科技含量增多,車輛載重量增大,運行速度越來越快,檢車員的勞動強度卻越來越小、工作環境越來越好。如今,高光手電筒、攝像手電筒、頻閃紅燈、無線風壓測試儀等工具及信息化設備成為檢車員作業中的標配。同時,隨著科技手段的推進,動態檢車員逐漸替代了室外檢車員,只需坐在電腦前,通過最先進的TFDS系統就可以檢查每一輛車的運用狀態,準確判定故障后,及時通知室外檢車員處理,大大提高了工作效率,節約了人力物力,保證了行車安全。
     
      “我年紀大了,風風雨雨經歷了很多,也有幸見證了列檢所的變遷。北輛的年輕人,你們趕上了好時代,希望你們在工作崗位上不斷鉆研進取,在鐵路車輛事業發展中灑下汗水、留下走過的足跡。”老主任寧志中的這番話時常在我耳邊回響著。我想,聽過他講述貨車運用維修史的北輛年輕人,也會記憶猶新。
     
      本文圖片由晉太良提供
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