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    孔林,墓葬文化的博物館

    時間:2019-05-20 10:40:44 來源:新浪旅游 作者:蘇丹卿
      山東曲阜三孔之一的孔林,是孔子及其后裔的家族墓地,也是世界延續時間最長的家族墓地。在1994年12月,它與孔府、孔廟并列入《世界遺產名錄》,是外地游客來曲阜旅游必去的地方之一。

     
      孔林,本稱至圣林,雖然它是一個家族墓地,但與一般墓地并不同,不僅是世界文化遺產,更因孔子家族而聞名世界,其墓葬數量之多,規模之大,保存之完好,這在世界上絕無僅有。
     
      走進這里頭,我的第一反應是,這不是一塊占地3000多畝的墓地,而是一座墓葬文化的博物館:墓地林墻周長5591米,在茂林之間,有墳冢10萬余座,墓碑4003座,古建筑116間,歷代石像、石儀85對。


     
      因此,來到這里,游客所見已經不是孔子的家族墓地這般簡單了,而是一種文化象征,當它被列為世界文化遺產時,就更能凸顯它的歷史價值和意義。
     

     
      走進孔林,映入眼簾的是古跡,比如萬古長春坊,牌坊之上的“萬古長春”四字,為明萬歷二十二年初建時所刻,后清雍正年間重修加固。石坊上還雕有盤龍、舞鳳、麒麟、駿馬、斑鹿、團花、祥云等精美圖案,此番雕刻出現在墓地中,可見墓地主人的歷史地位和價值。
     
      孔林大門為明代永樂二十二年所建,清康熙年間重修,孔林二門系清雍正十年敕修。洙水橋是明嘉靖二年建,橋上“洙水橋”三字傳為明代權臣嚴嵩所書。
     
      孔子墓甬道建于北宋宣和五年,并刻立華表、文豹、甪端等神獸。還包括有子貢手植楷,雖然只剩樹樁,但后人立碑建亭以示紀念。
     

     

     
      而最古老的文物遺產要屬孔子墓了,這也是孔林的靈魂所在,每一個進入孔林的游客都不會錯過這座古墓。孔子墓位于孔林中偏南地段,東西30米,南北28米,高5米,是一座規模宏大的個人墓地。
     
      前碑篆書“大成至圣文宣王墓”,后碑篆書“宣圣墓”三個字,碑前有石供案、下酒池和石砌拜臺以及磚砌花欞圍墻等。
     
      在孔子墓東為其子孔鯉墓,南為其孫孔伋墓,這種墓葬布局名為攜子抱孫。這時,轉身往外走時,沿途一路墓葬都是孔子后人。
     
      這些歷代墓葬成為研究古時歷朝歷代墓葬制度的重要實物,園內的許多古樹名木也成為了研究古代物候學、氣象學、生態學的活文物。
     

     
      這些古樹使得墓地環境非常蒼郁,茂林之間更是微風穿梭,春夏來此探索歷史人文,頗有人造園林之感。 這跟其他的古代帝王將相之墓比較起來,孔子的墓有歸隱山林之錯覺。沿著墓甬道,兩旁林野之間,樹立著無數墓碑,但墳冢更多,達到10萬余座。
     
      這10萬余座的墓葬,令后人既可考春秋之葬、證秦漢之墓,又可研究我國歷代政治、經濟、文化的發展和喪葬風俗的演變。作為世界延續時間最長的家族墓地,孔子家族的墓葬在2000多年里從未間斷。
     
      據考證,自漢代以后,歷代統治者對孔林重修、增修過13次,以至形成如今這般規模。這令人感到不可思議,恐怕歷史沒有哪一個人物能與其相比的了。
     
      作為享譽全球的孔夫子,他的思想及學說對后世產生的影響有目共睹。不僅是國內,包括國外關于孔子文化、思想都十分濃郁。
     
      歐洲許多古典哲學家對孔子也是有極高推崇。康德說孔子是“中國的蘇格拉底”。維科說:它像“埃及人的司祭書”,全是凡俗倫理。托爾斯泰說:沒有他(孔子)和老子,《福音書》都是不完備的。
     
      1988年1月,75位諾貝爾獎獲得者在巴黎發表宣言:“如果人類要在二十一世紀生存下去,必須回到2500年前去吸取孔子的智慧。” 關于諸如此類的高評價,還有很多,這里就一一舉例了。
     
      總之,進入孔林,自然不是走進墓地那般簡單,更不是墓地旅游那么滑稽,而是對歷史文化的一種探索,以端莊、敬畏的態度去了解它究竟為何會成為世界文化遺產。
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