• <nav id="mmymi"><nav id="mmymi"></nav></nav>
    詹天佑與姜坭車鉤
    ■左 什
      自動車鉤模型。
      中華工程師會出版的《新編華英工學字匯》。

      1909年10月2日,京張鐵路通車典禮在南口隆重舉行,中國人用自己的智慧和力量向世界展示了卓越的創造才能,在世界鐵路史上寫下濃墨重彩的一筆。京張鐵路的成功建設開了我國鐵路史上的諸多先河,其中一項重要創舉就是工程標準化的制定。詹天佑非常重視工程標準化,在京張鐵路建設即將結束時,他上書清政府,對統一全國鐵路工程標準提出具體意見,其中就包括建議全國鐵路使用自動車鉤。

      在使用自動車鉤前,我國鐵路運輸中普遍使用的是鏈式車鉤。這種連接方式需要工人在車與車之間引導連桿,讓連桿保持在適當位置從而使車廂相連。鏈式車鉤的安全性比較低,經常導致工人傷亡,并且由于車廂靠鐵鏈相連,接頭非常不牢固,鐵鏈又沒有彈性,車廂爬坡或轉彎時,鐵鏈很容易拉斷,車輛運行的安全無法得到保障。因此,詹天佑在上書清政府的建議書中提議使用更加安全、操作更加簡便的自動車鉤。他將自動車鉤的原理描述為:“車鉤其式如兩手相勾,觸機自能開合,譯音姜坭車鉤。”之所以稱其為姜坭車鉤,是因為它的發明者是美國人詹尼·漢密爾頓。詹尼·漢密爾頓于1868年獲得自動車鉤的發明專利,并于1873年獲得改良自動車鉤的第二項專利。自動車鉤用鐵鑄造,分別安裝在車廂的兩端,就像兩只握拳的手,兩只鉤手由鉤鎖鐵連接,可以自由地分解開合。兩個車鉤通過撞擊可以緊緊鉤死,使車廂相連,而當車廂需要分離時,也只需提起鉤鎖,使車鉤達到開鎖狀態,車體就可以順利分離。

      說到姜坭車鉤,不得不提到它背后的一段小故事。最初由于翻譯的原因,這種車鉤被國人稱為“詹氏車鉤”,再加上自動車鉤是由詹天佑引進到中國的,因此有不少人誤認為自動車鉤的發明者是詹天佑。詹天佑曾多次聲明姜坭車鉤并非他發明,他只是建議推廣使用自動車鉤。在編著《新編華英工學字匯》時,詹天佑特別將自動車鉤的譯名定為“鄭氏車鉤”(Janney Coupler),避開了“詹氏車鉤”中“詹”字的譯音,防止產生更多的誤解,這也體現了詹天佑平實謙虛、不貪戀名利的性格特點。

      姜坭車鉤在京張鐵路列車上得到廣泛使用,有效地避免了傳統鏈式車鉤由于京張鐵路坡度過大而產生的安全問題。不僅如此,詹天佑還提倡在全國鐵路廣泛使用自動車鉤。正是由于詹天佑對姜坭車鉤的推廣,我國鐵路從建設初期就普遍使用自動車鉤,這大大地保護了鐵路工作人員的安全,消除了車廂連接的安全隱患,避開了走使用鏈式車鉤的彎路,在當時具有十分先進的意義。

      除此之外,詹天佑還在我國鐵路標準化方面進行了很多探索。1913年,詹天佑擔任交通部技監,并于1916年主持全國交通會議,為全國鐵路建設制定統一技術標準。詹天佑對鐵路標準化、制度化的影響延續至今,激勵著一代代鐵路人不斷探索和超越。

      本文圖片由左什提供

    乐游彩票 www.h36555.com | 4052l.com | www.424221.com | www.9311c.com | www.8977500.com | 0606b.com | yin3939.com | www.031069.com | www.901758.com | www.33598p.com | www.5958115.com | www.88325s.com | www.u456x.com | www.345188.com | www.hgw0088.biz | www.8520o.com | mgm3242.net | s08199.com | 287722.com | 7811q.com | www.912486.com | www.4136m.com | www.h1765.com | www.619757.com | www.668811.com | www.dz655.com | 05877.com | heji256.com | 35222m.com | 2548546.com | 0747ss.com | 228888q.com | h151515.com | www.372477.com | www.99828.com | www.7025s.com | www.23427f.com | 800034338.com | 009900.com | 192160.com | yhxizang.vip | 82997.com | 3421b.com | 316t.cc | 55797m.com | 2012bet88.com | 40014499.com | 55663885.com | 6118z.com | 3644q.com | www.77114q.com | www.18456.com | www.42070016.com | www.4499nsb.com | www.1434u.com | www.yl61332.com | www.4546100.com | www.40288j.com | www.369404.com | www.xj7007.com | www.ag3333.com | www.79095s.com | www.xj7009.com | www.63606y.com | www.9599566.net | 931750.com | 5214.com | 1340.com | www.976000.com | www.v17888.com | www.0377365.com | www.06068006.com | www.10611a.com | www.ylg1108.com | www.88184.com | www.y0090.com | www.cp009.vip.com | www.sb5508.com | www.b32031.com | www.110589.com | www.7830q.com | www.7435j.com | www.aa444.vip | www.34666.com | www.66333666.com | www.5966bbb.com | www.58118b.com | www.1851138.com | www.js89n.vip | www.7240f.com | www.7239y.com | www.8839r.com | www.hx1177.com | www.655802.com | www.dcw345.com | www.hg6668.la | www.993776.com | www.tyc1998689.com | www.0270r.com | www.5441q.com | www.964977.com | www.514611.com | df8j.com | 6830aa.com | 89892yy.com | 8037ppp.com | 9303066.com | hg168y.com | www.34349193.com | www.mark428.com | www.5099jj.com | www.32031z.com | www.ts66888.com | www.558575.com | www.hao500.com | www.69567s.com | www.88266p.com | www.c5636.com | www.009321.com | 81509999.com | 2021k.com | 089776.com | www.rbet3365.com | www.987788.com | www.472706.com | www.pj55717.com | www.jsc3888.com | www.hg978978.com | www.515973.com | www.350c9.com | www.64141.com | www.480840.com | 33382kk.com | 4646088.com | 61327722.com | www.y30226.com | www.hjcp3.com | www.69567q.com | www.50064f.com | www.562601.com | sss01234.com | 78808h.com | 547563.com | www.zr6668.com | www.88807x.com | www.f27229.com | www.42msxfpt5.com | www.087x.com | www.621316.com | a3410.com | 492.cc | 20188u.com | www.912567.com | www.04567g.com | www.188666.com | www.603854.com | 1458n.com | 7003ww.com | 060939.com | hga021.com | 2418008.com | www.112351.com | www.33678kk.com | www.lin567.com | 9339999j.com | 4323e.com | www.55268j.vip | www.79500l.com | www.hg33382.com | www.566385.com | 20833c.com | 76543i.com | www.js06888.com | www.618146.com | www.673066.com | 88000.com | www.50074a.com | 33599tt.com | pp56988.com | www.hg8445.com | www.78680p.com | www.639477.com | dgd0000.com | mmm8827.com | www.423886.com | www.087v.com | www.359215.com | 4647099.com | www.7435g.com | www.88166i.com | www.34736.com | www.m94600.com | www.qj35.com | jidu9.com | 2709e.com | www.492049.com | www.2418002.com | www.132918.com | ll4119.com | www.4938h.com | www.70669a.com | www.536678.com | 85850.com | www.m.hg763.com | www.9737hh.com | www.ya218.com | 11989m.com | 33115dd.com | www.cai51.vip | www.50052n.com | 8742q.com | 556888.com | www.654234.com | www.77114g.com | hgyz888.com | 655660000.com | www.0748.cc | www.10999l.com | www.o063801.com | www.737689.com | ty77711.com | www.yh57788.com | www.xpj11882.com | www.340680.com | 67890zzz.com | 8030u.com | 2381bbb.com | www.98698m.com | www.911283.com | 1145.com | www.hg0450.com | www.959595.bet | t365q.com | 220414.com | www.6776hh.com | www.891085.com | 6002n.com | www.0151u.com | www.0601j.com | 66300vip14.com | p88.cc | www.4136t.com | www.602470.com | www.645977.com | 022531.com | www.88837v.com | www.ya2019f.com | 7811i.com | www.8124l.com | www.vns22.me | 555vn77.com | 6146b.com | www.820568.com | bet28n.com | 2846.com | www.xpj8118.com | 0694.com | www.7435d.com | www.598282d.com | 5509m.com | bet36333.com | ylyrm.com | www.30350f.com | 7720v.net | feicai0898.com | www.993769.com | amzsyl8.com | 2820s.com | www.c32031.com | ylzz8.cc | www.b67783.com | www.8008553.com | 11335156.com | www.76060l.com | www.2418001.com | 7773847.com | www.xpj178.com | www.36787c.com | 22668448.com | www.fc841.com | www.550249.com | 11mm8332.com | www.80188c.com | 67877e.com | www.791xj.com | www.hg81999.com | 81511t.com | www.pj8300.com | www.gyfc9.com | 41188833.com | www.b69096.com | pz08.com | www.530405.com | www.2875c.com | 507224.com | www.88166c.com | www.hf6680.com | www.139670.com | 23066.com | www.777557.cc | le888o.com | www.772345.com | www.584211.com | feicai0352.com | www.am1666.com | www.186664.com | 7726bbb.com | www.791555.com | www.401285.com | ag1515a.com | www.tyc44222.com | 6082.com | www.7415x.com | 500000572.com | www.yh6979.com | www.1035v.com | bo768.com | www.927816.com | giscrocodile.com | 6245r.com | www.2256.cc | www.56666.cc | www.hg0818.com | www.an966.com | ww444hg.co | www.38775bb.com | 0747hh.com | www.542770.com | www.234894.com | 0134.com | www.8039l.com | www.js520123.com | 7720b.com | www.77537q.com | 61321166.com | www.63606b.com | i35151.com | www.376477.com | www.938q.cc | 4317a.com | www.ch8955.com | www.hg0423.com | t2554.com | www.50732b.com | www.5y.cc | bet893.com | www.5555bj.com | www.pjbet444.com | 3616f.com | www.0343j.com | www.ks299.net | 909182.com | www.1199nsb.com | 79794858.com | 5003com | www.pjc66.vip | 9539r.com | 38668.com | www.i32031.com | 7792s.com | xpj.com | www.99552mm.com | 5509z.com | www.9895d.com | gbhs33.com | 883399r.com | www.4625q.com | JS1388r.com | www.vn99.vn | 5509h.com | www.7340111.com | www.xpj8898.com | 1335h.com | www.88266x.com | www.js5666.com | 64111s.com | www.089b.cc | www.he0055.com | nn3405.com | www.564696.com | www.4136j.com | 7935b.com | 3178mm.com | www.668679.com | www.fed888.com | 2618b.com | www.8667a.com | vip4553.com | www.815055.com | www.848434.com | ff2205.com | 635120.com | www.55238f.com | www.142357.com | chunqiu2.com | www.528335.com | www.xpj558888.com | 12772244.com | xpj44444.vip | www.ya115.com | www.m948m.com | 9895n.com | 4221999.com | www.hg09b.com | www.yh3682.com | 1294w.com | www.182498.com | www.511219.com | www.9976799.com | www.022tj.cc | www.37728.com | 64111v.com | 5634j.com | www.53900c.com | www.18997.com | 8557j.com | 8742ii.com | www.23579e.com | www.122822.com | 2649n.com | 87665x.com | www.53168.com | www.hf9012.com | 3121j.com | 444000zz.com | www.1111zx.com | 11xx8332.com | kk3365.com | www.51331j.com | www.799666t.com | 58339.com | 6033.com | www.608587.com | www.1011777.com | www.299888.com | 65560123.com | 7744jjj.com | www.81455.com | www.9dcp.com | www.am3366.com | 563820.com | www.344680.com | www.5856865.com | www.yz300.com | 33115xx.com | 713348.com | www.776511.com | www.js89f.vip | www.cz3065.com | 7792a.com | 1v939.com | www.cp0017.com | 883399n.com | 32365y.com | www.529355.com | www.55717y.com | www.683556.com | 2848.tt | 99151j.com | www.183572.com | www.308005.com | www.0999888.com | www.333222u.com | jjj40033.com | 854817.com | www.c1363.com | www.68277333.com | lll4165.com | 496ee.com | www.6832w.com | www.35252d.com | www.pj8470.com | 8036b.com | 4022rr.com | www.293788.com | www.4323c.com | www.8967f.com | www.6020400.com | 84497722.com | 4023r.com | www.532918.com | www.27666000.com | www.7415aa.com | www.2833555.com | 3434mmm.com | 33885003.com | hg7078.mobi | www.c129.vip | www.y07b.com | www.79500n.com | www.288msc.com | hg91778.com | o8009.com | 53166o.com | www.6939h.com | 2546v.com | g40033.com | k1.z6528.com | www.558502.com | www.66376y.com | www.4196s.com | www.kk1778.com | www.kim217.com | 82299.com | 6002e.com | 44ee8331.com | www.635477.com | www.99638j.com | www.1754c.com | www.jh6677.com | www.hg226.cm | 2018.so | www.917gc.com | www.win1235.com | www.sb5501.com | www.609sunbet.com | www.vns2n2.com | mf705.com | 4255oo.com | 370395.com | hg88814.com | www.445888a.com | www.ky1002.com | www.79095i.com | www.91w.com | www.7545q.com | www.xpj9999.cc | 2127e.com | zz4119.com | 20771199.com | xpj71333.com | www.198109.com | www.hcjt0.com | www.4323z.com | www.12136h.com | www.90.tt | www.c15595.com | www.hgbet7.com | www.a3a666.cc | yth13.net | 40033hhh.com | www.ya2019o.com | www.77785yh.com | www.hg173e.com | www.66632.com | www.v15502.com | www.80852.com | 3844g.com | 55545j.com | 3890.com | 0805e.com | aobo44444.com | ss3405.com | 22966.com | www.215463.com | www.769971.com | www.092wy.com | www.73166j.com | www.875808.com | 2698g.com | 44002007.com | 1294d.com | yth005.net | zhcp41.com | 66669193.com | 313989.com | 22449193.com | sxmlr.net | 710136.com | www.208990.com | www.560692.com | www.814646.com | www.gyfc8.com | www.5086u.com | www.43818j.com | www.7239m.com | www.9422b.com | www.1434d.com | www.933436.com | www.3066pp.com | www.00773q.com | www.580975.com | www.xinpujingcaipiao.com | www.hk8688.com | www.909022.com | www.292030.com | www.vns00ss.com | www.16635.com | www.sky3333.com | www.benz4343.com | 2546o.com | 8881779.com | 20188k.com | www.60123e.com | www.128083.com | www.178397.com | www.187135.com | www.196280.com | www.336766.com | www.214656.com | www.155782.com | www.099323.com | www.108013.com | www.135842.com | www.102386.com | www.068657.com | www.2200ra8.com | www.35700cc.com | www.hgdc500.com | www.4196a.com | www.a83377.com | www.669112.com | www.535081.com | www.1831222.com | www.7240d.com | www.hd8672.com | www.19222.com | www.550021l.com | www.50788n.com | www.3890p.com | www.qj35.com | www.828326.com | www.544094.com | www.202405.com | www.055168.cc | 8yth.com | 61320000.com | 0363a.com | 28288gg.com | hwcp2222.com | 71707u.com | zz00558.com | 6830w.com | www.033033w.com | www.63877f.com | www.ty7000.com | www.pp8996.com | www.788789.com | www.cszb.com | www.390292.com | www.608333.com | www.719365.com | www.330099i.com | www.538598.com | www.6a444.com | www.xpj778899.com | www.574546.com | www.48330w.com | www.77802p.com | www.070.la | www.624377.com | www.68568o.com | pj88cc.com | 6195jp.com | c53.net | 62222g.com | hg128.com | www.535msc.com | m40033.com | 6487jjj.com | 2019xx.cc | www.7435t.com | www.570907.com | www.234msc.com | www.5981z.com | www.97828b.vip | www.33997k.com | www.893023.com | 4379t.com | js75.com | 809h39.com | 36989c.com | www.dc550037.com | www.34557.com | www.998855s.com | www.am8333.com | www.6867.cc | www.878zf.com | www.177249.com | 01234ww.com | 05071100.com | 0229422.com | www.888vip5.com | www.wns4567.com | www.99113w.com | www.3398755.com | www.9478a.com | www.359215.com | 67890vv.com | bh889933.com | am3144.com | www.773114.com | www.androidappforxgsaimahui.com | www.540640c.com | www.ya2019l.com | www.c51jj.vip | www.6880vv.com | www.26243.com | www.852021.com | 6261621.com | 3556vip5.com | js5657.com | www.389988.com | www.552318.com | www.733484.com | www.33112b.com | www.233591.com | 01572.com | 61321122.com | www.hg1020.net | www.44470.com | www.m063801.com | www.35155t.com | www.217030.com | 121.net | zhcp26.com | 55818t.com | 4520066.com | 5589t.com | www.555423.net | www.89677f.com | www.80075c.com | www.319075.com | 91019e.net | 25288m.com | www.ydb01.com | www.8313b.com | www.91233s.com | www.339786.com | 18438s.com | 702215.com | www.60688store.com | www.bwinyz23.com | www.43818m.com | www.99788o.com | ll5443.com | 8827uuu.com | www.8898hg.com | www.7783066.com | www.csgc5.com | jing7770.com | 3559i.com | www.s67811.com | www.50999u.com | www.83033n.com | www.186793.com | 31194444.com | a5002.com | www.sj016.com | www.x33678.com | www.667537.com | 91019u.net | zhcp89.com | www.long987.com | www.55676k.com | www.38345i.com | www.179107.com | www.454556.com | 80850z.com | xx5144.com | www.vip6233.com | www.81608s.com | www.431016.com | 8898222.com | 18775c.com | www.lfcp111.com | www.153280.com | www.178775.com | 73730524.com | www.e32126.cc | www.28000y.com | www.6364i.com | 5001e.com | p08199.com | www.bmw8555.com | www.3846e.com | www.530891.com | 3379j.com | www.8973.cc | www.88166w.com | www.500go.com | 6033c.com | 365225b.com | www.8833tm.com | www.99677p.com | 87965qq.com | t45638.com | www.248247.com | www.6889781.com | www.41518b.com | 4955d.com | 12274466.com | www.02188.cx | www.4078s.com | www.hw0123.com | 5855uu.com | www.888xin2.com | www.8473s.com | www.976909.com | 450372.com | www.ylg258.com | www.sha2222.com | www.834918.com | 18775y.com | www.6666.cm | www.63606z.com | www.397411.com | 3467q.am | www.242365.com | www.33mgm777.com | 02489.com | 6245y.com | www.d4042.com | www.2934e.com | 1331n.com | www.ks883.com | www.2544g9.com | www.420689.com | 3522m.cc | www.5860r.com | www.0270p.com | 353458.com | 69442288.com | bet36550000.com | www.js607.com | www.51515h.com | 1654e.com | www.xx0088.com | www.115527m.com | www.217030.com | 7720m.com | www.818515.com | www.104ak.com | 623670.com | www.777444l.com | www.725158.com | 1119964.com | 3434ccc.com | www.4078d.com | www.450689.com | v3405.com | www.3157666.com | www.99jtk.com | 66150.com | www.v0033.tv | www.xinhuangguan.net | js58881.com | www.76060w.com | www.39695d.com | www.4546300.com | www.33997a.com | 2267n.com | www.00618f.com | www.399280.com | 4182.com | www.1168r.com | www.650317.com | 6146s.com | www.sun3678.com | www.847568.com | 9679n.com | www.6766msc.com | www.810262.com | 66287g.com | www.bet99955.com | www.677879.com | xpjgo6.com | www.27363t.com | www.586960.com | 4182y.com | www.808888.tw | www.498266.com | 2148.com | www.848777d.com | www.108095.com | 28758x.com | www.2000d.cc | fff5682.com | 7775144.com | www.js36686.com | 4052a.com | www.9068ee.com | www.xinhuangguan.com | 87680l.com | www.107898.com | www.1444ac.com | 3467n.cc | www.77c668.com | www.529026.com | 2222k09.com | www.4196k.com | 477074.com | www.hg05567.com | www.72890.com | 2229.net | www.pj8980.com | www.c1456.com | 44009193.com | 3559a.com | www.98cpw.com | www.081510.com | 44488s.com | www.88qiji.com | 115478.com | www.xpj99897.com | www.fl98.com | hg88000.com | www.6hg6668.com | hy352.com | www.hg518.com | www.33997f.com | k60666.com | www.11c93.com | 64899.com | www.ylg89.com | www.26163a.com | 7n3777.com | www.j948j.com | www.50080a.com | www.9599447.com | www.84499w.com | 0729y.com | www.o3065.com | 888.SK | www.bet365a4.com | www.39058.cc | t4212.com | www.46630.net | www.ag.hg3005.tw | 88850ii.com | www.092365.com | www.379477.com | hjdc2016.com | www.ya2019i.com | 6118o.com | www.ii55826.com | 84498833.com | www.3412277.com | www.hy6937.com | 11442007.com | www.4809h.com | 3559zzz.com | www.ra0008.com | 14144688.com | www.88699vip.com | www.fen00.com | hd6766.com | www.971406.com | 7894v.com | www.cp9518.com | 9030d.com | www.144676.com | www.711414.com | ysb8.com | www.80065c.com | 4340j.com | www.29098.com | 915902207.com | www.5966ggg.com | ctxcp68.com | www.1hg88.us | www.530781.com | www.586885.com | www.6364r.com | 5597lkt.com | www.6939l.com | 35222ee.com | www.73990g.com | 588ppp.cc | www.177158.com | h2554.com | www.766411.com | www.005710.com | www.333133s.com | www.755745.com | www.j85757.com | www.105ak.com | 253501.com | www.65707p.com | 11683333.com | www.1239999.cc | 3522hh.cc | www.33678ff.com | 1145.com | www.biying930vip.com | 17771.com | www.vns9018.com | www.fg9908.com | 888991188.com | www.62979c.com | 0209.com | www.2544g7.com | 1213com.com | www.5189111.com | 7240l.com | www.10999c.com | 33318a.com | www.bwinyz05.com | 3522p.vip | www.b35ff.com | ylzz1115.cc | www.4078j.com | 93888js.com | www.sha2288.com | 405087.com | www.sha2277.com | 1294t.com | www.4196g.com | 0245i.com | www.69567i.com | ww222hg.com | www.8577e.cc | 3662r.com | www.55717u.com | 998f.cc | www.36583333.com | dx059.com | www.50026y.com | 896320.com | www.076wy.com | 1594005.com | www.915696.com | 5588hhgz.com | www.1559504.com | shen5511.com | www.087p.com | 3775i.com | www.50811.com | 8030b.com | www.9356q.com | 1489i.com | www.769211.com | www.hg2729.com | www.178673.com | www.jg6655.com | vs9777.com | www.5049u.com | 2277bet.com | www.33678gg.com | 3467n.com | www.ee563.com | 55818b.com | www.933509.com | www.365775.com | www.096610.com | www.671100.com | 1591008.com | www.829797b.com | 77005.com | www.6768995.com | 62222u.com | www.089wy.com | www.93456.com | www.178357.com | www.7424.com | chinajtw.com | www.4996gx.com | 4189222.com | www.81520w.com | 1288gg.com | www.577369.com | www.7172211.com | 89777o.com | www.7415aa.com | 3566hh.com | www.146662.com | P35jj.com | www.444037.com | www.hg9948.com | 80850d.com | www.hg31118.com | v997b.com | www.022zj.cc | www.67797v.com | 2139.com | www.9ccp22.com | 4022m.com | www.51515c.com | www.blr0055.com | 10jqka.com |