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    詹天佑與姜坭車鉤
    ■左 什
      自動車鉤模型。
      中華工程師會出版的《新編華英工學字匯》。

      1909年10月2日,京張鐵路通車典禮在南口隆重舉行,中國人用自己的智慧和力量向世界展示了卓越的創造才能,在世界鐵路史上寫下濃墨重彩的一筆。京張鐵路的成功建設開了我國鐵路史上的諸多先河,其中一項重要創舉就是工程標準化的制定。詹天佑非常重視工程標準化,在京張鐵路建設即將結束時,他上書清政府,對統一全國鐵路工程標準提出具體意見,其中就包括建議全國鐵路使用自動車鉤。

      在使用自動車鉤前,我國鐵路運輸中普遍使用的是鏈式車鉤。這種連接方式需要工人在車與車之間引導連桿,讓連桿保持在適當位置從而使車廂相連。鏈式車鉤的安全性比較低,經常導致工人傷亡,并且由于車廂靠鐵鏈相連,接頭非常不牢固,鐵鏈又沒有彈性,車廂爬坡或轉彎時,鐵鏈很容易拉斷,車輛運行的安全無法得到保障。因此,詹天佑在上書清政府的建議書中提議使用更加安全、操作更加簡便的自動車鉤。他將自動車鉤的原理描述為:“車鉤其式如兩手相勾,觸機自能開合,譯音姜坭車鉤。”之所以稱其為姜坭車鉤,是因為它的發明者是美國人詹尼·漢密爾頓。詹尼·漢密爾頓于1868年獲得自動車鉤的發明專利,并于1873年獲得改良自動車鉤的第二項專利。自動車鉤用鐵鑄造,分別安裝在車廂的兩端,就像兩只握拳的手,兩只鉤手由鉤鎖鐵連接,可以自由地分解開合。兩個車鉤通過撞擊可以緊緊鉤死,使車廂相連,而當車廂需要分離時,也只需提起鉤鎖,使車鉤達到開鎖狀態,車體就可以順利分離。

      說到姜坭車鉤,不得不提到它背后的一段小故事。最初由于翻譯的原因,這種車鉤被國人稱為“詹氏車鉤”,再加上自動車鉤是由詹天佑引進到中國的,因此有不少人誤認為自動車鉤的發明者是詹天佑。詹天佑曾多次聲明姜坭車鉤并非他發明,他只是建議推廣使用自動車鉤。在編著《新編華英工學字匯》時,詹天佑特別將自動車鉤的譯名定為“鄭氏車鉤”(Janney Coupler),避開了“詹氏車鉤”中“詹”字的譯音,防止產生更多的誤解,這也體現了詹天佑平實謙虛、不貪戀名利的性格特點。

      姜坭車鉤在京張鐵路列車上得到廣泛使用,有效地避免了傳統鏈式車鉤由于京張鐵路坡度過大而產生的安全問題。不僅如此,詹天佑還提倡在全國鐵路廣泛使用自動車鉤。正是由于詹天佑對姜坭車鉤的推廣,我國鐵路從建設初期就普遍使用自動車鉤,這大大地保護了鐵路工作人員的安全,消除了車廂連接的安全隱患,避開了走使用鏈式車鉤的彎路,在當時具有十分先進的意義。

      除此之外,詹天佑還在我國鐵路標準化方面進行了很多探索。1913年,詹天佑擔任交通部技監,并于1916年主持全國交通會議,為全國鐵路建設制定統一技術標準。詹天佑對鐵路標準化、制度化的影響延續至今,激勵著一代代鐵路人不斷探索和超越。

      本文圖片由左什提供

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